Apropos of the 25 year anniversary of the first IBI/EFI/UEFI boot services at week ago, as commemorated at the 20 year milestone in https://vzimmer.blogspot.com/2018/10/
"Ken Reneris Oct-14-1998"
there was a question of the coding standards for UEFI https://twitter.com/bexcran/status/1701071379171619236 recently which made me think of Ken. I mentioned how that since Ken had come over to Intel from the Windows NT team at Microsoft it was natural to adopt the NT coding standard https://computernewb.com/~lily/files/Documents/NTDesignWorkbook/coding.pdf for the original IBI/EFI/UEFI work. This includes the EFI_ERROR macros, inf's, CR macro, TPLs as simplified IRQLs https://vzimmer.blogspot.com/2015/06/guids-revisions-interrupts.html, etc. This made IBI/EFI/UEFI a sort of a cultural 'Windows BIOS' given that lineage.
And Ken as the MS HAL owner continually interfaced with the platform. In fact, standards like ACPI pre-dated IBI/EFI/UEFI by starting in the mid-90's. Ken was deep into that work, too, as evidenced by his solo inventor ship of the now-expired S4 resume patent https://patents.google.com/patent/US6209088B1/en.
But then again, who uses 'BIOS' https://basicinputoutput.com/2014/08/will-i-be-jailed-for-saying-uefi-bios.html?
So the blog title is firmware events. Over the last couple of weeks there was a UEFI plugfest in the Portland area and a Open Compute Project (OCP) event in San Jose. As I drove back from the former, I stopped by a bookstore and saw https://www.amazon.com/Beyond-BIOS-Developing-Extensible-Interface/dp/1501514784
on the shelf.
On that same shelf I saw
Though not the immediate book neighbor, the nearby https://www.amazon.com/ARM-Architecture-Reference-Manual-2nd/dp/0201737191 reminded me of Dave Jaggar. Back in the mid-1990's we were development hardware RAID controllers at Compaq and using custom ASICs alongside an AMD 29k RISC CPU. I recall Jaggar from ARM coming to visit and explaining the ARM architecture. Part of the discourse included showing a silicon die with a small portion highlighted for the ARM core itself. It was quite a shock for me to so such small mm-squared for a CPU. My firmware lead (lead == sole design & developer) work on the SMART-2SL
https://www.amazon.com/Compaq-242777-001-WIDE-SCSI-CONTROLLER-242777001/dp/B0002FDXLQ is but a memory to be rekindled occasionally by seeing aftermarket examples of this device. In addition to being the first device to not have a non-volatile post write cache, this work gave me the opportunity to do some interesting firmware performance innovations with a colleague https://patents.google.com/patent/US6341342B1/en.
Speaking of CPQ, it has been a strange migration of companies for me. My original internship was with Texaco, which in turn was purchased by Chevron. Then I did my first full-time firmware development at Daniel Industries, later acquired by Emerson Electric. My first foray into PC BIOS was at Texas Microsystems (TMI) working on industrial computers, which then was acquired by Radisys. Finally, my pre-Intel employer Compaq server group was in turn acquired by Hewlett-Packard, and then split into the enterprise side HPe. Luckily Intel is still Intel.
So speaking of the development event, it spanned 3 days. I presented on the first day (lower left image)
day (rightmost image) https://uefi.org/sites/default/files/resources/Firmware%20Configuration%20%E2%80%93%20Past%2C%20Present%2C%20and%20Future_Zimmer.pdf. The first day of the event included a description of SPDM https://www.dmtf.org/standards/spdm and its support introduced into the UEFI 2.10 specification. SPDM is homed at the DMTF but has associated work-product having in groups like UEFI and the Trusted Computing Group (TCG).
In the Insyde talk Tim Lewis mentioned the growth of attacks on the UEFI network stack after many years of battering SMM. This reminded me of a recent posting I saw https://www.linaro.org/blog/ledge-blogs-uefi-http-and-https-boot-in-u-boot/ where the U-Boot community discussing using https://savannah.nongnu.org/projects/lwip/ which is a similar approach taken in https://github.com/tianocore/edk2-staging/tree/MpNetworkStack mentioned in https://uefi.org/sites/default/files/resources/7_Maciej%20Vincent_INTEL_network%20stack%20performance.pdf. From the days of discussing HTTP booting in 2009 https://dblp.org/rec/conf/csreaSAM/Zimmer09.html?view=bibtex and having the URL boot option mentioned in https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc5970.txt has come a long way. Just as EDKII consumes cryptography as a submodule from another community, maybe it's time to do so for the basic networking capabilities.
Given that AWS started in 2006, it may have a bit short-sighted of me to have said "...emergent compute models such as cloud computing." in that SAM 09 paper.
Maybe I was keying off the 09 date of what I thought was the definitive paper on the cloud, viz., https://www2.eecs.berkeley.edu/Pubs/TechRpts/2009/EECS-2009-28.pdf.
So back to the topic of this blog, namely firmware events. On that topic, the next week came the Open Compute Project (OCP) event in San Jose. I first presented at OCP in 2015 with Mallik Bulusu https://cdrdv2.intel.com/v1/dl/getContent/671185
and then again in 2016 on firmware updates http://files.opencompute.org/oc/public.php?service=files&t=1f7831234dce58bb875b1b5b24f7154d.
This session last week was on the universal payload
I have been engaged on server platforms since I was hired into Intel in February 1997 to lead the IA-64 (Merced, Itanium) firmware. Along the way we devised ways to facilitate ease of firmware development, like multi-socket cache-as-RAM https://patents.google.com/patent/US7254676B2/en
And all of these threads come together in these recent talks. The SPDM prezo mentioned at the top of the posting here entail facing the post-quantum cryptographic migrations like all of the other standards, including UEFI https://uefi.org/, TCG https://trustedcomputinggroup.org/, and others. The proposal for augmenting UEFI is mentioned in https://bugzilla.tianocore.org/show_bug.cgi?id=4087 and some prezos on the topic can be found at https://uefi.org/sites/default/files/resources/Post%20Quantum%20Webinar.pdf and https://uefi.org/sites/default/files/resources/USF_Security_Webinar_Final.pdf. The specific study on SPDM was posted as a pre-print to https://eprint.iacr.org/2022/1049 and then a journal submission in https://www.mdpi.com/2410-387X/6/4/48.
Since SPDM has fixed message sizes, the concept of 'chunking' or breaking up the larger payloads demanded by these post-quantum algorithms is a common concern other hardware-based messaging interfaces will face, like the Trusted Computing Group's Trusted Platform Module (TPM). Interestingly this topic of post-quantum impacts on firmware standards that motivated the SPDM paper
listed above was inspired by the study https://eprint.iacr.org/2021/041 from Cisco.
And during Q/A with the CISA presentation during the UEFI developer event I asked about formal methods for this domain. Since this talk followed the SPDM talk one recommendation was to use formal for the SPDM wire protocol. It turns out the above MDPI SPDM paper is referenced by a few formal studies of SPDM, including https://www.usenix.org/conference/usenixsecurity23/presentation/cremers-spdm and https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/10149352/.
And speaking of security and standards, this upcoming week is the TCG members meeting at the Google campus in Kirkland, WA. I am Intel's representative on the Technical Committee, assuming that role after Kirk Brannock retired.
But the TCG is not unfamiliar to me. I have been engaged with TCG https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trusted_Computing_Group even when it was called TCPA, as evidenced by work-product like https://patents.google.com/patent/US7200758B2/en and delivering the Itanium and EFI API and platform specification, respectively.
When reading https://research.tue.nl/en/publications/communication-in-a-world-of-pervasive-surveillance-sources-and-me from the mention of Jacob in https://www-theregister-com.cdn.ampproject.org/c/s/www.theregister.com/AMP/2023/09/19/marvell_disputes_claim_that_cavium/, I hearkened back to my first ToorCamp presentation
Based upon the slide
and discussion around the TPM, Jacob told me that we should design a TPM so that it could quickly be removed from board and chewed up/swallowed if someone tries to take your computer. Quite the privacy-preserving dietary strategy.
It's interesting to see people in person after the years of COVID seclusion and event cancellation or wholly-virtual events. Just like the psychic shock and fatigue of crowds, continual interaction and noise, it is taking a bit of effort to get re-acclimated. Part of the symptomology is falling behind on blogging, I guess, since I had intended to post this entry on the day of the EFI 25-year anniversary, not a week later. Oh well. Only so many free moments on the weekends these days.